Chapter 9- "Cellular Respiration"

Cellular Respiration: Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

Aerobic: Processes that require oxygen.
Anaerobic: Processes that do not require oxygen.

Aerobic equation vs. Photosynthesis equation:
Photosynthesis- 6CO2 + 6H2O -------> (sunlight) C6H12O6 + 6O2
Aerobic- 6O2 + C6H12O6 ---------> 6CO2 + 6H2O


Glycolysis: The breakdown of glucose, takes place in the cytoplasm.
- The first set of reactions in cellular respiration.
- During glycolysis one molecule of glucose is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid.
The ingredients:
- glucose
- 2 ATP
-NAD+
The Products:
- 2 pyruvic acids
- 4 ATP
- 2 NADH

Glycolysis2.jpg

The Krebs Cycle (The Citric Acid Cycle):
-During the Krebs Cycle the pyruvic acid that was created during glycolysis, is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions.
-This is the second stage of cellular respiration
-Takes place in the mitochondria
The ingredients:
-Pyruvic acid
-NAD+
-FAD+
The Products:
-Carbon dioxide
-NADH
-FADH2
-2 ATP

min_krebs.jpg

The Electron Transport Chain:
-Uses the high energy electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP into ATP.
-Takes place in the mitochondria.
The ingredients:
-NADH
-FADH2
-O2
The Products:
-About 36 ATP
-H2O

Electron_Transport_Chain.gif


Fermentation: In the absence of oxygen, fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP.
Alcoholic Fermentation: Used to produce alcoholic beverages, and causes bread to rise.
Pyruvic acid + NADH -------> Alcohol + CO2 + NAD+

ferment_lock.jpg


Lactic Acid Fermentation: During brief periods without oxygen, many of the cells in our bodies are capable of producing ATP by lactic acid fermentation. The cells best adapted to doing that, however, are muscle cells, which often need very large supplies of ATP for rapid bursts of energy. If you experience lactic acid fermentation you feel intense pain and cramps in your large muscles, such as legs, and arms.
Pyruvic acid + NADH -------> Lactic acid + NAD+

4165061.png


Bibliography:
http://09chris.weebly.com/glycolysis.html
http://www.ethanol-still-plans.com/fermentation.htm
http://altmed.creighton.edu/Parkinsons/cq10.htm
http://www.biomatrixone.com/support_minerals.html
http://dolly.biochem.arizona.edu/Bioc462b_Honors_Spring_2009/ksamsel/glycolysis%20thumb.html