Terms to know:

Selective Breeding: Method of breeding that allows only those organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation.

Hybridization: Breeding technique that involves crossing dissimular individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms.

Inbreeding: Continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the derived characteristics of a kind of organism.

Recombinant DNA: DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.

Transgenic: term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms.

Clone: Member of population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.

GMO: Genetically Modified Organisms- an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques

Restriction Enzymes: Enzyme that cuts the DNA at a sequence of nucleotides.

Ligation: the covalent linking of two ends of DNA molecules using DNA ligase.
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1.) How has genetic engineering been used for centuries? Genetic engineering has been used in such cases for plants (corn, tomatoes, peaches etc.) which is hybridization and thats where you cross to plants to create a better one. Also, inbreeding breeding which is used for pets which happens when you breed the same dogs so they are "pure" breeds.

2.) How is DNA cut? Dna is cut by a restriction enzyme.
3.) How is DNA recombined? Recombining DNA can be done through ligation. Ligation is the process used to put together two ends of DNA that had been cut. Ligase is used in this process to put together the two sticky ends of DNA.

4.) What is the value in creating transgenic organisms? Negatives? The values in creating transgenic organisms are many. For example you can make plants more rugged and acceptable to more environments or make vegetables create their own bug repellent. There are many more applications however there is one down side. We don’t know how these new organisms will affect the environment around them.


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