RNA and Protein Synthesis

What is RNA: A nucleic acid that consists of a long chain of nucleotides.
Comparing DNA and RNA: Differences
  • The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose.
  • RNA is generally single-stranded and not double-stranded
  • RNA contains Uracil in place of Thymine.

The Functions of RNA: RNA has 3 main functions
1) The messenger RNA: The molecules that carry copies of the instructions to assemble amino acids
2) The Ribosomal RNA: Forms an important part of both subunits of the ribosomes.
3) The Transfer RNA: Carries amino acids to the ribosome and matches them to the coded mRNA message.

RNA Synthesis:
Transcription: Segments of DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules.

Protein Synthesis- tRNA is transferred out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm. They go into the ribosomes and the codons are matched with anticodons. Amino acids are made and formed together to create proteins. This is part of the translation process.

messenger RNA- the RNA molecules that carry copies of instructions.
transfer RNA- transfers each amino acid to the ribosome as it is specified by the coded messages in mRNA.